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- Gould's squid is a fast growing, short-lived and quickly reproducing species, although reproduction varies according to environmental conditions.
- Although no stock assessments have been conducted for this species, long-term catch records have been stable for over a decade, indicating that the species is not at risk from fishing activity.
- Gould’s squid are not actively targeted in the otter trawl fishery, but caught while fishing for other species of fish.
- Some of the area of seabed utilised by this fishery has been mapped; trawling grounds overlap with high-risk habitats, including areas of sensitive corals and sponges.
- Historical high impacts on fragile marine habitats have been addressed through the closure of some trawling areas.
- The fishery catches some threatened species such as Australian fur seals, shortfin mako sharks and seabirds, although industry has been proactive in trying to reduce mortalities of these vulnerable species.
- All trawl vessels now must have seabird management plans in place to reduce seabird deaths, although the effectiveness of new measures will become clear in coming years.
Note: The trawl fishery discards up to half of its catch. The ecological impacts of this discarding have not been fully quantified.
- Commonwealth Southern and Eastern Scalefish and Shark Fishery (Commonwealth Trawl Sector) (542t in 2016)
Gould’s squid are not actively targeted in the otter trawl fishery, but are caught while fishing for other fish species. They are a fast growing, short-lived (around 12 months) species that reproduces quickly and produces a high number of offspring. Undertaking formal stock assessments for squid species (scientific assessments of their numbers) is generally difficult for fishery managers, as reproduction is highly variable depending on environmental conditions. However, as catches of Gould’s squid have been stable for over a decade, managers have assessed that the species is not at risk from fishing activity.
Some of the area where fishing occurs has been well mapped in order to identify the distribution of sensitive sea floor species. Trawling sometimes takes place on areas of seafloor that support sponges, hard corals and bryozoans (small invertebrates that form colonies similar to coral reefs), but it is unclear how much trawling activity is resulting in damage to habitats and associated species. Some areas of marine habitat are protected in marine parks and through other spatial closures. It is likely that this fishery has had a high impact on the marine environment in the past, but spatial closures and reductions in the amount of fishing over the past two decades has reduced that impact.
Protected species caught in this fishery include Australian fur seals, seabirds (including albatross and shearwaters) and shortfin mako sharks. Inconsistencies between logbook reporting and independent observers have been a problem in the past, and the fishing industry has been addressing these inconsistencies through training schemes.
There is some independent monitoring of the fishery that catches Gould’s squid. While reporting of endangered wildlife deaths has improved in recent years, a comparison between observer recorded deaths and fishery logbook records is needed in order to provide confidence in reporting.
Seal Excluder Devices (SEDs), which act as escape hatches for seals that enter trawl nets, are mandatory. All trawl boats must have a seabird management plan in place to guide how each boat aims to reduce interactions with seabirds while actively fishing. Many of the solutions to seabird interactions have been fishing industry-led innovations. Initial evidence seems to indicate that some innovations could reduce the impact of fishing on endangered seabirds, however these have only recently been applied to fishing vessels and their effectiveness remains unquantified at present.
The fishery catches unwanted fish that are then discarded. The amount of fish discarded has not been quantified, but it has been estimated that around half of the weight of the total catch in the otter trawl fishery may be discarded, with many of these fish dying during the process. The cumulative ecosystem impacts of discarding fish have not yet been quantified.